Studies

Usurpation of Lebanese coastal public property, 5 million m2 : When will the state recover them ?

By The Monthly - monthlymagazine.com | - last updated :

français |  عربي

The occupancy of coastal public properties is both a paramount and a thorny matter. Paramount because, whether legal or not, the occupancy fails to provide the state with revenues commensurate with the value of the occupied seaside areas and thorny because since the end of the Civil War, due to political and regional interference, there has not been a solution to recover the usurped rights of the state.

How are coastal public properties defined and what is the status of their occupancy today ?

Defining coastal public properties

Public properties are defined in Decision 144/D, which was issued by the High Commissioner of the Republic of France to Syria, Greater Lebanon, the Alawis and the Mountain of the Druze on June 10, 1925 and consists of four chapters including 26 articles.

According to article 1, «Public properties in Greater Lebanon and the State of Alawis comprise all things intended, owing to their nature, to be used by everyone or to serve a public interest. They cannot be sold and no ownership over them can be acquired with time».

Article 2 stipulates that «Public properties include :

  • The seaside, up to the farthest distance that waves can reach in winter in addition to sand and gravel beaches... As well as those saline lakes adjoining the sea...
  • The ports, marine terminals and bays...»

As for public property occupancy, Article 14 established that the state or the municipalities may license the occupancy of their properties on a temporary, revocable and chargeable basis, particularly when the matter is associated with a certain project.

Article 17 stipulates that temporary occupancy licenses for these properties may be granted for a period of one year only and may be renewed by tacit consent. Said licenses may be revoked upon the first request of the state without compensation.

Occupancy of coastal public properties

Decree no. 4810, which was issued on June 24, 1966 under the presidential term of Charles Helou and the government headed by Abdullah Yafi, established the regulations of seaside property occupancy as follows :

  • Coastal public property shall remain at the disposal of the public and no right, in favor of anyone, shall be derived from it authorizing its closure for a personal or private interest.

Allowing the designation of part of the beach for the use of individuals or groups and limiting this usufruct to them shall be an exception that may only be implemented in special cases under the following general grounds :

General grounds imposed where exploitation of the seaside is approved :

  • The intended project must bear a public aspect and must have justifications for tourism or industry according to the licenses issued by the relevant authorities (Higher Council for Urban Planning).
  • The requested investment should not prevent the integrity of the beach in cases where there are areas that must remain accessible to the public.
  • Permanent facilities may not be erected on coastal public property except for those relating to sporting and organizational equipment and the associated ancillaries that must be found near the beach, provided that the Ground Exploitation Coefficient of said equipment is no more than 5% and the building rises no more than 6 meters in height, with a maximum Total Exploitation Coefficient of 0.075%.
  • Depending on its intended use, the project should be established in the zones classified for tourism/hotels or industry, in accordance with the regulations governing Lebanese beaches. The maps annexed with Decree no. 4809 dated June 24, 1966 are considered part and parcel of this Decree.)
  • The exploitation of coastal public property for industrial projects is not permissible except in the zones designated for this purpose and which, in their nature, require exploitation of coastal public properties. The exploitation shall be limited to the surface area necessary for the facilities bound to reach seawater, within the percentages specified above.
  • The suggested project should observe technicalities and justifications showing the areas designated for each kind of sports, the proportion of surface area covered by the swimmers’ locker rooms, free spaces on private properties as well as the free spaces for each person. The project should also observe traffic flow, the parking lots designated for clients and other equipment and proportions, all within the rates determined by the administration.
  • The license seeker should own a property neighboring the coastal public area he wishes to occupy. Public roads and railroads shall not be considered a separator between private properties and coastal public properties in cases where the relevant authority authorizes the crossing of said roads or railroads through a tunnel or a bridge.

The coastal public area intended for occupation should be, at best, twice as big as the private adjacent property and its facade should not be greater than that of the adjacent property. However, pursuant to Decree no. 7464 dated October 30, 1995, the following amendment was added :

  • By virtue of a decree issued in the Cabinet upon the proposition of the Minister of Public Works and Transport, the water surface area intended for occupation may be increased beyond the permissible rate, provided that the property area is no less than 20,000 square meters and the license is granted for a first-class tourist project.
  • If there is a public road leading to the sea, the coastal public property stretching along 50 meters from road axis may not be occupied and this space must remain for the public.

Current status of the occupied areas

Pursuant to the aforementioned legal texts, the occupied areas of the coastal public property may be divided into five sections totaling combined (water surface + reclaimed area) 4,901,726 m2 of which 2,365,938 m2 or roughly 48% are licensed. The remaining 2,535,788 m2 or 52% are illegal and unlicensed as illustrated in tables 1 and 2.

  1. Occupancies legalized by official decrees
  2. Occupancies legalized by official decrees but the ccupants have overstepped their occupancy permits
  3. Illegal occupancies by occupants with a private adjacent property conforming to legal requirements
  4. Illegal occupancies by occupants who do own a private adjacent property but non-conforming to legal requirements
  5. Illegal occupancies by occupants who do not own any private adjacent property.
Licensed and legalized occupancies of coastal public property - Table 1
Mohafazah No of Decrees Reclaimed area (m2) Water surface (m2) Facilities (m2) Total (m2)
Mount Lebanon 33 716,512 472,051 43,139 1,188,563
Northern Lebanon 26 572,550 367,342 36,426 939,892
Southern Lebanon 5 146,088 0 10,584 146,088
Beirut 9 80,065 11,330 9,004 91,395
Total 73 1,515,215 850,723 99,153 2,365,938

Sources : The Monthly, Information International SAL Issue 158, Ministry of Public Works and Transport

Illegal occupancies of coastal public property - Table 2
Mohafazah No of Decrees Reclaimed area (m2) Water surface (m2) Facilities (m2) Total (m2)
Mount Lebanon 390 935,195 124,126 119,244 1,059,321
Northern Lebanon 281 766,550 216,975 52,941 983,525
Southern Lebanon 367 468,933 40 126,158 468,973
Beirut 30 23,569 400 7,772 23,969
Total 1,068 2,194,247 341,541 306,115 2,535,788

Sources : The Monthly, Information International SAL Issue 158, Ministry of Public Works and Transport

1. Occupancy legalized by official decrees

The Lebanese government issued 73 decrees licensing the occupancy of coastal public properties totaling 2,365,938 m2, including 1,515,215 m2 of reclaimed areas and a water body of 850,723 m2, distributed as illustrated in Table 3 :

Decrees licensing coastal public property occupancies - Table 3
Mohafazah No of Decrees Reclaimed area (m2) Water surface (m2) Facilities (m2) Total (m2)
Mount Lebanon 33 716,512 472,051 43,139 1,188,563
Northern Lebanon 26 572,550 367,342 36,426 939,892
Southern Lebanon 5 146,088 0 10,584 146,088
Beirut 9 80,065 11,330 9,004 91,395
Total 73 1,515,215 850,723 99,153 2,365,938

Sources : The Monthly, Information International SAL Issue 158, Ministry of Public Works and Transport

The largest license in terms of occupied surface area was granted to Sté Huiles et Dérivés SAL in Selaata at 207,000􏰁􏰰􏰱􏰳􏰘􏰱􏰱􏰱􏰁 m2, followed by the Development of Lebanese Shores Company in Kfar Aabida, Batroun at 199,000 m2 as illustrated in Table 4.

The largest license in terms of occupied surface area - Table 4
Real estate zone Qada’a Occupier Area of the adjacent private property (m2) Reclaimed area (m2) Water surface (m2) Facilities (m2) Total (m2)
Selaata Batroun Sté Huiles et Dérivés SAL 􏰁and Middle East Fodder Co. 206,614 106,500 100,500 7,985 207,000
Kfar Aabida Batroun Development of Lebanese Shores Company 51,843 179,933 19,093 1,567 199,026
Jiyeh Chouf Ciment de Sibleen SAL - 100,000 50,000 153 150,000
Sarba Keserwan ATCL - 60,530 39,330 7,090 99,860
Choueifat Aley Emirati-Lebanese Investment Company 40,864 79,413 2,315 6130 81,728
Borj Hammoud Matn Shell Company 79,889 49,086 22,914 3,600 72,000
Halate Jbeil Real Estate Development Company 30,000 38,000 22,000 1,760 60,000
Ras Masqa Koura Palma Touristic Company 24,431 41,100 18,040 4,435 59,140
Dbayeh Matn Leisure Hill SAL 29,413 58,825 - - 58,825
Baouchriyeh Matn MEDCO - 13,000 39,600 2,592 52,600
Choueifat Aley Abdul Latif Ibrahim Mdawwar 49,910 37,050 13,000 3,118 50,050
Chiyah Baabda General Company for Tourist Projects 21,421 30,950 11,860 2,350 42,810
Wata Slam Keserwan Real Estate Company for Tourist Facilities 37,085 28,800 13,900 3,180 42,700
Beirut Beirut Maryland Tourism Projects Co. (Movenpick) 22,048 32,320 10,080 3,180 42,400
Heri Batroun Florida Touristic Co. 19,458 17,090 21,826 967 38,916
Zouq Mosbeh Keserwan Nahr al-Kalb Tourist Center Company 21,736 16,075 14,530 841 30,605

Sources : The Monthly, Information International SAL Issue 158, Ministry of Public Works and Transport

2. Occupants overstepping their occupancy permits

Of the 73 entities and individuals who have obtained licenses to occupy coastal public properties, 20 have overstepped the area established in their occupancy permits (2.3 million m2􏰛􏰋) by roughly 232,000 m2 as illustrated in Table 5.

Encroachments on coastal public properties by licensed occupants - Table 5
Mohafazah No. of encroachments Reclaimed area (m2) Water surface (m2) Facilities (m2) Total (m2)
Mount Lebanon 12 114,177 15,791 30,361 129,968
Northern Lebanon 5 89,705 6,510 4,000 96,215
Beirut 3 6,499 0 3,216 6,499
Total 20 210,381 22,301 37,577 232,682

Sources : The Monthly, Information International SAL Issue 158, Ministry of Public Works and Transport

The largest transgression was made by the Sté Huiles et Dérivés SAL in Selaata, which encroached upon 41,000 m2 followed by Las Salinas in Enfeh at 27,000 m2 as illustrated in Table 6.

Violations by occupants who have overstepped their occupancy permits - Table 6
Region Qada’a Occupant Area of the adjacent private property (m2) Reclaimed area (m2) Water surface (m2) Facilities (m2) Total (m2)
Selaata Batroun Sté Huiles et Dérivés SAL 55,664 40,800 - - 40,800
Enfeh Koura Las Salinas 9,424 23,000 4,370 4,000 27,370
Zouk Mosbeh Keserwan Nahr al-Kalb Tourist Center Company 15,293 14,174 5,017 - 19,191
Naameh Chouf Family Beach Resort 3,940 15,472 3,614 2,200 19,086
Selaata Batroun Lebanon Chemicals Co 79,773 19,000 - - 19,000
Wata Aamaret Chalhoub Matn Gas Orient SAL 7,167 16,759 - 1,704 16,759
Sarba Keserwan The Yacht Club - 6,951 7,160 4,508 14,111
Wata Slam Keserwan Tabarja Beach 66,469 12,948 - 19,844 12,948

Sources : The Monthly, Information International SAL Issue 158, Ministry of Public Works and Transport

3. Encroachments by occupants with a private adjacent property conforming to legal requirements

These kinds of violations are reconcilable because they are committed by occupants who own neighboring plots of land that fulfill the legal requirements established in Decree 4810. These encroachments total 26 and cover an area of 119,272 m2 as illustrated in Table 7.

Encroachments by occupants who own private adjacent properties conforming to legal requirements - Table 7
Mohafazah No. of encroachments Reclaimed area (m2) Water surface (m2) Facilities (m2) Total (m2)
Northern Lebanon 11 50,080 7,560 1,758 57,640
Mount Lebanon 8 44,120 11,280 1,232 55,400
Southern Lebanon 7 6,232 0 500 6,232
Beirut 0 0 0 0 0
Total 26 100,432 18,840 3,490 119,272

Sources : The Monthly, Information International SAL Issue 158, Ministry of Public Works and Transport

Foremost among these encroachments are the intrusions made by Solemar beach resort in Zouk Mkayel and by Marina Del Sol resort in Koura as illustrated in Table 8.

Most notable violations on coastal public properties by occupants who own private adjacent properties conforming to legal requirements - Table 8
Real estate zone Qada’a Occupier Area of the adjacent private property (m2) Reclaimed area (m2) Water surface (m2) Facilities (m2) Total (m2)
Zouk Mkayel Keserwan Solemar 21,365 23,180 2,800 315 25,980
Hraicheh Koura Marina Del Sol 14,606 16,700 6,400 100 23,100
Ras Masqa Koura Commercial real estate company 10,600 14,340 1,160 - 15,500
Qalamoun Tripoli Mohammad and Abdul Ghani Qunaiter 9,960 14,000 - - 14,000
Choueifat Aley Ramez Abdul Halim Qassem Saab 12,395 3,744 8,480 - 12,224
Aamaret Chalhoub Matn Jean Yared’s Company 11,377 8,910 - - 8,910

Sources : The Monthly, Information International SAL Issue 158, Ministry of Public Works and Transport

4. Encroachments by occupants with a private adjacent property non-conforming to legal requirements

These encroachments were committed by occupants who possess neighboring plots of land, but these plots do not meet the legal requirements stipulated in Decree 4810. The number of this kind of intrusions is 431 covering an area of roughly 1.5 million m2 as illustrated in Table 9.

Encroachments by occupants who own private adjacent properties non-conforming to legal requirements - Table 9
Mohafazah No. of encroachments Reclaimed area (m2) Water surface (m2) Facilities (m2) Total (m2)
Mount Lebanon 217 627,354 96,635 66,082 723,989
Northern Lebanon 116 422,627 191,105 23,469 613,732
Southern Lebanon 84 212,762 0 3,535 212,762
Beirut 14 13,780 400 3,416 14,180
Total 431 1,276,523 288,140 96,502 1,564,663

Sources : The Monthly, Information International SAL Issue 158, Ministry of Public Works and Transport

In terms of surface area, the greatest intrusion was made by North Marina Company in Ras Masqa, which occupies 123,000 m2 as illustrated in Table 10.

Encroachments by occupants who own private adjacent properties non-conforming to legal requirements - Table 10
Real estate zone Qada’a Occupier Area of the adjacent private property (m2) Reclaimed area (m2) Water surface (m2) Facilities (m2) Total (m2)
Ras Masqa Koura North Marina 4,714 75,400 47,600 1,700 123,000
Qalamoun Tripoli Nasr Miramar Touristic Co. 20,424 53,400 42,600 2,500 96,000
Saida Saida Ali Al-Jammal 100,763 68,400 - - 68,400
Ras Masqa Koura The Najis 6,900 26,620 30,880 275 57,500
Qalamoun Tripoli North Tourist Enterprise 9,584 31,260 15,440 470 46,700
Zouk Mosbeh Keserwan Al-Remal Resort 13,227 27,905 15,384 2,430 43,289
Choueifat Aley Costa Brava 9,580 23,960 15,950 4,570 39,910
Zouk Mkayel Keserwan Samaya Beach Resort 13,645 35,320 2,135 506 37,455
Sarba Keserwan Portemilio 28,374 27,419 5,280 2,370 32,699
Qalamoun Tripoli North Heaven Club 3,856 18,764 10,236 216 29,000
Qalamoun Tripoli Neptune Tourist Enterprise 853 27,000 - - 27,000
Damour Chouf Al-Jisr Beach 83,839 26,144 - - 26,144
Ras Masqa Koura The Ghandours 5,870 21,100 - 860 21,100
Saida Saida Political leader 41,112 20,100 - - 20,100
Ras Masqa Koura Mona Maasarani 3,640 14,860 4,400 875 19,260
Choueifat Aley Villamar 6,772 11,156 8,000 1,450 19,156
Antelias Matn Nadim, Chafik and Antoine Qassis 5,625 18,437 - 9,652 18,437
Choueifat Aley Said Fakhri and Salim Kanj 22,165 13,837 3,331 50 17,168
Qalamoun Tripoli Kamil Mrad 1,134 12,800 3,600 - 16,400
Ras Masqa Koura The Haddads 3,831 4,730 10,720 1,000 15,450
Bourj Matn Homsi and Partners 9,798 15,168 - - 15,168
Aaqaybeh Keserwan Waqf of Mar Doumit Monastery 24,942 14,310 - 1,874 14,310
Enfeh Koura General Company for Fuels 4,324 14,240 - 1,900 14,240
Safra Keserwan Rabieh Hotek Company 20,844 14,227 - 3,252 14,227
Jadra Chouf Orass 415 14,180 - 1,206 14,180
Chiyah Baabda Summerland 19,961 11,824 2,350 1,950 14,174
Batroun Batroun Khalil Frangieh and Sayed Aziza 3,104 7,951 5,320 2,019 13,271
Jadra Chouf Sands Rock 555 11,183 1,942 83 13,125
Ghazir Keserwan Michel Nicolas Zreiq 2,915 4,091 7,750 440 11,841
Choueifat Aley Mohammad Khalil Mezher 1,242 11,725 - 325 11,725
Damour Chouf Summer Beach 3,661 11,544 - - 11,544
Mastita Jbeil Four Season Beach 4,320 10,820 - 414 10,820
Aabbassiyeh Tyre The Dahers 116,720 10,800 - - 10,800
Haret Sakhr Keserwan Anefco 2,745 10,065 473 - 10,558
Batroun Batroun Aqua Land 7,236 9,640 709 168 10,349
Chiyah Baabda Coral Beach 7,700 7,559 2,350 1,795 9,909
Chekka Batroun Assad Boulos 118 8,150 1,450 1,150 9,600
Haret Sakhr Keserwan Sheikh Khalil Khoury 1,498 6,525 2,943 370 9,468
Haret Sakhr Keserwan Rashid Khazen 4,681 5,748 4,000 500 9,748
Haret Sakhr Keserwan Toufik Bitar 1,804 7,298 1,997 - 9,295
Jadra Chouf Family Beach 45,336 8,700 - - 8,700
Mdawwar Beirut Al-Jerji Saad 5,836 8,632 - - 8,632
Jiyeh Chouf Ali and Ahmad Kejouk 20,370 3,596 4,715 - 8,311
Saida Saida The Zaataris 124,969 8,300 - - 8,300
Mastita Jbeil Albert Helo and Charbel Zoughaib 46,478 8,270 - 2,100 8,270
Aadloun Saida Mostafa Nahouli Sons 107,709 8,185 - - 8,185
Safra Keserwan Safra Marine 9,804 7,935 - 2,439 7,935
Jadra Chouf Mina Beach 448 5,386 2,096 136 7,482
Mastita Jbeil Sea Flow Beach 46,478 6,450 - 1,083 6,450
Zouq Mosbeh Keserwan Masaken El-Bahr 11,778 5,576 - - 5,576
Jiyeh Chouf Bellevue Beach 1,148 4,069 - - 4,069
Choueifat Aley Lebanon Beach 5,230 3,040 1,000 340 4,040

Sources : The Monthly, Information International SAL Issue 158, Ministry of Public Works and Transport

5. Encroachments on both public and private property

These encroachments were made by people who do not own any private properties close to the coastal public areas they are occupying, which is considered a serious transgression against both public and private properties. These encroachments totaled 530 covering a total area of roughly 615,000 m2 as illustrated in Table 11.

Encroachments made by occupants who do not own an adjacent property - Table 11
Mohafazah No. of encroachments Reclaimed area (m2) Water surface (m2) Facilities (m2) Total (m2)
Southern Lebanon 221 245,801 40 111,078 245,841
Northern Lebanon 145 204,138 11,800 23,714 215,938
Mount Lebanon 151 149,258 420 21,479 149,678
Beirut 13 3,290 0 1,140 3,290
Total 530 602,487 12,260 157,411 614,747

Sources : The Monthly, Information International SAL Issue 158, Ministry of Public Works and Transport

Largest among these encroachments is the intrusion made by a company in Dbayeh into roughly 54,000 m2 for a tourist project. another 58,000 m2 are encroached upon by an agriculture project in Tyre as illustrated in Table 12.

Encroachments made by occupants who do not own an adjacent property - Table 12
Real estate zone Qada’a Occupant Reclaimed area (m2) Water surface (m2) Facilities (m2) Total (m2)
Mhalbeb Tyre Hassan Ezzedine 58,488 - - 58,488
Dbayeh Matn - 54,295 - 1,200 54,295
Aabbassiyeh Tyre Jal El-Bahr Camp 53,040 - 53,040 53,040
Tripoli Tripoli Ahmad Tlais 38,975 - - 38,975
Jiyeh Chouf United Group for Industry and Trade 37,500 - 1,250 37,500
Mina Tripoli Ahmad Kheir 18,700 - - 18,700
Qalamoun Tripoli Samir Hakim 12,100 2,200 1,200 14,300
Bissariyeh Saida Fouad Khalifeh 13,220 - 224 13,220
Tripoli Tripoli Abdullah Ghandour 12,812 - - 12,812
Sarafand Saida Hussein Faqeeh 12,570 - 2,695 12,570
Heri Batroun Antar Saliba and Philip Yammine 10,850 - 1,810 10,850
Hamat Batroun Romeo Frangieh 10,800 - 1,540 10,800
Minieh Minieh The Tabous 10,800 - - 10,800
Minieh Minieh Khaled Kheir 10,500 - - 10,500
Borj Hammoud Matn Estfan Institution 9,605 - - 9,605
Hamat Batroun Jerji and Atiyya Merheb 9,300 - 300 9,300
Hamat Batroun Samir Frangieh 8,700 - 1,160 8,700
Hamat Batroun Boutros Morqus Frangieh 4,640 4,000 670 8,640
Choueifat Aley Ali Mawla 8,034 420 64 8,454
Hamat Batroun Nassim Daher 4,200 4,000 1,300 8,200
Tripoli Tripoli Riad Massoud 7,754 - 482 7,754
Heri Batroun Binyamin Kheir and Tony Frangieh 5,320 1,600 1,900 6,920
Zouq Bhannine Minieh Hassan Deeb 6,850 - - 6,850
Dekerman Saida Mostafa Hariri 6,460 - 4,660 6,460
Dekerman Saida Mahmoud Chamseddine 5,430 - 1,800 5,430
Bissariyeh Saida Mostafa Saad and Ansari 5,210 - 250 5,210
Wastani Saida Violation against plot 375 4,600 - 940 4,600
Hamat Batroun Michel Najm and Simon Frangieh 4,200 - 500 4,200
Chiyah Baabda The Hrajlis 3,730 - 1,450 3,730
Choueifat Aley - 2,880 - 80 2,880
Sarafand Saida Hussein Khalifeh 2,650 - - 2,650
Wata Slam Keserwan Violation against plot 59 2,610 - 85 2,610
Ain Mreisseh Beirut Palace Cafe 2,500 - 700 2,500
Aadloun Saida Abbas Tahhan 2,400 - 900 2,400
Sarafand Saida Mohammad Kalifeh 2,210 - 156 2,210
Chiyah Baabda Brigadier General Abdullah 2,090 - 110 2,090
Tahouitat El Ghadir Baabda Ismail Hassan 1,980 - 780 1,980
Chiyah Baabda The Khafajas 1,750 - 1,750 1,750
Tahouitat El Ghadir Baabda Ali Shaaban 1,550 - 300 1,550
Chiyah Baabda Consumer Cooperative Association 1,915 - 1,415 1,415
Chiyah Baabda Youssef Haraki 1,270 - 790 1,270
Sarafand Saida Khalil Chahrour 1,070 - 130 1,070
Aamchit Jbeil Mikhael Romanos 992 - 90 992

Sources : The Monthly, Information International SAL Issue 158, Ministry of Public Works and Transport

NB: The names mentioned in the tables above are by no means intended to offend the occupants and are faithfully cited as reported by the Ministry of Public Works and Transport.

Revenues

The occupancy of these large beachfront properties, whether licensed or not, fails to bring in the revenues commensurate with the value of the occupied areas, either because of the failure to collect fees from illegal occupants or because the occupancy fees imposed on legal ones are too low. The latter seems rational for many find it absurd that they should pay the state lavish amounts while unlicensed occupants refrain from paying and await a new law that would regularize and resolve their status. Some estimates put the revenues expected from the settlement at USD 500 million and others at roughly USD 5 billion,which brings the figure to an average of USD 1 billion to USDUSD 2 billion. The law has been awaited for more than 25 years (since the end oft the Civil War) and it is unlikely that it will see the light in the coming years because the encroachers are mostly men of power or people backed by men of power.

The 2015 draft budget law made no mention of any revenues from the occupancy of coastal properties. However, according to figures from previous draft budget laws, the average expected revenues amounted to roughly LBP 20 billion, while actual revenues did not exceed LBP 1 billion to LBP 2 billion annually.

While the state goes out of its way to impose new taxes or increase existing ones to cover the growing expenses, roughly 5 million m2 of coastal public properties remain usurped by a class influential politicians to the detriment of the Treasury and the citizens. In its decision dated 18/12/2014 into the case brought by Sultana Fringier against the Interior Ministry and the Naoura Real Estate Company, the Shura Council emphasized «that the administrative and judicial sanctions shall be made without prejudice to the right of the administration to claim compensation for damage and bring down the works set up on illegal properties or easement areas automatically and without the need for a transaction.»